The attitudes of his men were a point of emphasis in leading his men back to safety. To this end, he made preparations for what became the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 1914–1917. Emily Shackleton later recorded: "The only comment he made to me about not reaching the Pole was 'a live donkey is better than a dead lion, isn't it?' [31], After a period of convalescence in New Zealand, Shackleton returned to England via San Francisco and New York. Shackleton immediately sent a boat to pick up the three men from the other side of South Georgia while he set to work to organise the rescue of the Elephant Island men. The meteorologist was Captain L. Hussey, also an able banjo player. With Amundsen reaching the pole in December of 1911 and Scott in 1912, Shackleton asked himself what was the last great geographic prize. Shackleton later wrote, "if we did not make it to South Georgia in that time we were sure to go under." "[32] There is no corroboration of Armitage's story. Longstaff, impressed by Shackleton's keenness, recommended him to Sir Clements Markham, the expedition's overlord, making it clear that he wanted Shackleton accepted. F Four years later, the family moved again, from Ireland to Sydenham in suburban London. On the return journey, Shackleton had by his own admission "broken down" and could no longer carry out his share of the work.[30]. The only way his expedition would be successful was through the hard work of his entire crew. For these achievements, Shackleton was knighted by King Edward VII on his return home. [121] The goals of the venture were imprecise, but a circumnavigation of the Antarctic continent and investigation of some "lost" sub-Antarctic islands, such as Tuanaki, were mentioned as objectives.[123]. On 9 April, their ice floe broke into two, and Shackleton ordered the crew into the lifeboats and to head for the nearest land. At age 13, Shackleton enrolled at Dulwich College. Please tell us about Shackleton’s Endurance expedition. In his search for rapid pathways to wealth and security, he launched business ventures which failed to prosper, and he died heavily in debt. What Did Shackleton Do? [14][15] Although officially on leave from Union-Castle, this was in fact the end of Shackleton's Merchant Navy service. Suffering from a heart condition, made worse by the fatigue of his arduous journeys, and too old to be conscripted, he nevertheless volunteered for the army. Picture the unholy lovechild of an episode of Downton Abbey and It’s Always Sunny In Philadelphia, and you have the life of Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton. Shackleton refused to pack supplies for more than four weeks, knowing that if they did not reach South Georgia within that time, the boat and its crew would be lost. [13] On 17 February 1901, his appointment as third officer to the expedition's ship Discovery was confirmed; on 4 June he was commissioned into the Royal Navy, with the rank of sub-lieutenant in the Royal Naval Reserve. Shackleton led four expeditions to the Antarctic during his life. [57], In 1910, Shackleton made a series of three recordings describing the expedition using an Edison phonograph. As a young boy, his family moved to England where he started his first formal schooling. [49] Nimrod arrived at McMurdo Sound on 29 January, but was stopped by ice 16 miles (26 km) north of Discovery's old base at Hut Point. Shackleton himself was safe, but he did not forget his stranded men. [6] Four years later, the family moved again, from Ireland to Sydenham in suburban London. [84][85], Endurance departed from South Georgia for the Weddell Sea on 5 December, heading for Vahsel Bay. Sir Ernest Shackleton : First let me say that if war is declared, any man who wishes to leave the expedition to serve his country is free to do so. In his 1956 address to the British Science Association, Sir Raymond Priestley, one of his contemporaries, said "Scott for scientific method, Amundsen for speed and efficiency but when disaster strikes and all hope is gone, get down on your knees and pray for Shackleton", paraphrasing what Apsley Cherry-Garrard had written in a preface to his 1922 memoir The Worst Journey in the World. One does not believe that we have lost all sense of admiration for courage [and] endurance". In tribute to their achievement, he wrote: "I do not know how they did it, except that they had to—three men of the heroic age of Antarctic exploration with 50 feet of rope between them—and a carpenter's adze".[105]. [152] In October 2015, Shackleton's decorations and medals were auctioned; the sale raised £585,000. Today is the 99th anniversary of the death of famed explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton, who died in South Georgia on 5 January 1922 on his fourth expedition to the Antarctic. [49], It was noted that ice conditions were unstable, precluding the establishment of a safe base there. Despite his efforts, it required government action, in the form of a grant of £20,000 (2008: £1.5 million) to clear the most pressing obligations. With Amundsen reaching the pole in December of 1911 and Scott in 1912, Shackleton asked himself what was the last great geographic prize. He was one of the principal figures of the "Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration". The crew of 28 had a meteorologist, a biologist, a carpenter, a physicist, a cook, a photographer, a couple of officers, seamen, firemen, and surgeons. In 2002, in a BBC poll conducted to determine the "100 Greatest Britons", Shackleton was ranked 11th while Scott was down in 54th place. [115] In the midst of seeking capital, his plans foundered when Northern Russia fell to Bolshevik control. Away from his expeditions, Shackleton's life was generally restless and unfulfilled. [145] In 2001, the Athy Heritage Centre-Museum, Athy, County Kildare, Ireland, established the Ernest Shackleton Autumn School, which is held annually, to honour the memory of Ernest Shackleton. Literature, too, consisted in the dissection, the parsing, the analysing of certain passages from our great poets and prose-writers ... teachers should be very careful not to spoil [their pupils'] taste for poetry for all time by making it a task and an imposition. [110][111] In October 1917, he was sent to Buenos Aires to boost British propaganda in South America. In 1880, when Ernest was six, Henry Shackleton decided to study medicine at Trinity College, Dublin, and moved his family into the city. After the Nimrod expedition in 1907-09, Shackleton wanted to prove to the world what a great explorer he was. [76] Public interest in the expedition was considerable; Shackleton received more than 5,000 applications to join it. Ward-room caterer. Shackleton was born on 15 February 1874, in Kilkea, County Kildare, Ireland. But what did Ernest Shackleton really do and what leadership insights can we learn from him? His story though is more familiar. Also, members of his team climbed Mount Erebus, the most active Antarctic volcano. [128] Within a year the first biography, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton, by Hugh Robert Mill, was published. Replicating Shackleton’s journey So I decided to give it a go myself. [102], On the following day, they were able, finally, to land on the unoccupied southern shore. At one point, Shackleton gave his one biscuit allotted for the day to the ailing Frank Wild, who wrote in his diary: "All the money that was ever minted would not have bought that biscuit and the remembrance of that sacrifice will never leave me". Its … [98] Shackleton had clashed with McNish during the time when the party was stranded on the ice, but, while he did not forgive the carpenter's earlier insubordination, Shackleton recognised his value for this particular job. - Ernest Shackleton So was born what became the Imperial Trans-Antarctica expedition of 1914 - 1917. When Sir Ernest Shackleton set out on the Endurance to be the first man to cross the Antarctic, he knew he could not do it alone. [23], According to steward Clarence Hare, he was "the most popular of the officers among the crew, being a good mixer",[24] though claims that this represented an unofficial rival leadership to Scott's are unsupported. Ernest Shackleton, however, would not have been surprised: he edited his 1914-17 journal into the book, South!, which was published three years after he had returned from Antarctica. The inscription on the rough-hewn granite block set to mark the spot reads: "Frank Wild 1873–1939, Shackleton's right-hand man. On 24 October, water began pouring in. by Paul Clammer Posted on 20 June 2018. Above, is the notice for employment on the Endurance posted by Shackleton. [147], In 1993 Trevor Potts re-enacted the Boat Journey from Elephant Island to South Georgia in honour of Sir Ernest Shackleton, totally unsupported, in a replica of the James Caird. Nevertheless, in February 1907, Shackleton presented to the Royal Geographical Society his plans for an Antarctic expedition, the details of which, under the name British Antarctic Expedition, were published in the Royal Geographical Society's newsletter, Geographical Journal. [121][122], The plan changed; the destination became the Antarctic, and the project was defined by Shackleton as an "oceanographic and sub-antarctic expedition". [146], Shackleton's death marked the end of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, a period of discovery characterised by journeys of geographical and scientific exploration in a largely unknown continent without any of the benefits of modern travel methods or radio communication. Ernest Shackleton was part of a big family. The Endurance 1914 – 1916 expedition has become one of the greatest epics of human survival. Ernest Henry Shackleton (1874-1922) was a British explorer who commanded three expeditions to the Antarctic (1907-09, 1914-17, 1921-22), during which the South Magnetic Pole was located in 1909. Filchner had left Bremerhaven in May 1911; in December 1912, the news arrived from South Georgia that his expedition had failed. [115], For his "valuable services rendered in connection with Military Operations in North Russia" Shackleton was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 1919 King's Birthday Honours,[116] and was also mentioned in despatches by General Ironside. This march was not a serious attempt on the Pole, although the attainment of a high latitude was of great importance to Scott, and the inclusion of Shackleton indicated a high degree of personal trust. [62][63] He was honoured by the Royal Geographical Society, who awarded him a Gold Medal; a proposal that the medal be smaller than that earlier awarded to Captain Scott was not acted on. Born in Ireland in 1874, Shackleton traded his modest prospects for a career in the British navy. The party was in high spirits, despite the difficult conditions; Shackleton's ability to communicate with each man kept the party happy and focused.[51]. [35], In search of more permanent employment, Shackleton applied for a regular commission in the Royal Navy, via the back-door route of the Supplementary List,[37] but despite the sponsorship of Markham and William Huggins, the president of the Royal Society, he was not successful. [7], From early childhood, Shackleton was a voracious reader, a pursuit which sparked a passion for adventure. Later in the 20th century, Shackleton was "rediscovered". Launching the James Caird from the shore of Elephant Island, April 24, 1916. In the early hours of the next morning, Shackleton summoned the expedition's physician, Alexander Macklin,[126] to his cabin, complaining of back pains and other discomfort. Who Was Ernest Shackleton? He identified optimism, patience, idealism and courage as key characteristics. Life-president of … [a][28] The journey was marred by the poor performance of the dogs, whose food had become tainted, and who rapidly fell sick. [67] The reality was that the expedition had left Shackleton deeply in debt, unable to meet the financial guarantees he had given to backers. In 1921, he led the Shackleton–Rowett Expedition. Born close to the village of Kilkea, between Castledermot and Athy, in the south of County Kildare in 1874, Ernest Shackleton is renowned for his courage, his commitment to the welfare of his comrades and his immense contribution to exploration and geographical discovery. Rowett agreed to finance the entire expedition, which became known as the Shackleton–Rowett Expedition. The Shackleton story. [120] In 1920, tired of the lecture circuit, Shackleton began to consider the possibility of a last expedition. [142], In 2001 Margaret Morrell and Stephanie Capparell presented Shackleton as a model for corporate leadership in their book Shackleton's Way: Leadership Lessons from the Great Antarctic Explorer. Shackleton's mother, Henrietta Letitia Sophia Gavan, was descended from the Fitzmaurice family. [113] On the way he was taken ill in Tromsø, possibly with a heart attack. To listen, just search for “What would Shackleton do?” wherever you get your podcasts or you can find them on the Shackleton Museum website. [98] Ship's carpenter Harry McNish made various improvements, including raising the sides, strengthening the keel, building a makeshift deck of wood and canvas, and sealing the work with oil paint and seal blood.[98]. [10], During the following four years at sea, Shackleton learned his trade, visiting the far corners of the earth and forming acquaintances with a variety of people from many walks of life, learning to be at home with all kinds of men. [46], On 1 January 1908, the Nimrod set off on the British Antarctic Expedition from Lyttelton Harbour, New Zealand. While Shackleton did not achieve his ambition to cross the Antarctic he has become famous for his triumphs of honesty and humanitarianism. [127] Leonard Hussey, a veteran of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic expedition, offered to accompany the body back to Britain; while he was in Montevideo en route to England, a message was received from Emily Shackleton asking that her husband be buried in South Georgia. [33], Years after the death of Scott, Wilson and Shackleton, Albert Armitage, the expedition's second-in-command, claimed that there had been a falling-out on the southern journey, and that Scott had told the ship's doctor that "if he does not go back sick he will go back in disgrace. Ernest Shackleton never did reach the South Pole or cross Antarctica. [13], The British National Antarctic Expedition, known as the Discovery expedition after the ship Discovery, was the brainchild of Sir Clements Markham, president of the Royal Geographical Society, and had been many years in preparation. [117] Shackleton returned to England in early March 1919, full of plans for the economic development of Northern Russia. He wanted to be the first person to reach the South Pole, but then a Norwegian guy called Roald did it first in another pretty thrilling tale where a bunch of people died, so instead Shackleton was like “RIGHT LADS. He identified, “Shackleton is recognised as a role model for his leadership in times of crisis, most notably the. On his third Antarctic expedition, Sir Ernest Shackleton led the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition for Britain, which departed England in 1914. [133] Lady Shackleton survived her husband by 14 years, dying in 1936. [59], On Shackleton's return home, public honours were quickly forthcoming. Ernest Henry Shackleton was a dreamer. [140], Within a few years, he was thoroughly overtaken in public esteem by Shackleton, whose popularity surged while that of his erstwhile rival declined. The Shackleton family are of English origin, specifically from Yorkshire. On 27 November 2011, the ashes of Frank Wild were interred on the right-hand side of Shackleton's gravesite in Grytviken. [10] His father was able to secure him a berth with the North Western Shipping Company, aboard the square-rigged sailing ship Hoghton Tower. When disaster struck and the Endurance was crushed by ice, he made brave decisions that led the team to safety. E xplorer Explorer Sir Raymond Priestley said: "For scientific discovery give me [Robert Falcon] Scott; for speed and efficiency of travel give me [Roald] Amundsen; but when disaster strikes and all hope is gone, get down on your knees and pray for [Ernest] Shackleton.". Sir Ernest Shackleton visited old friends at the whaling station and organised preparations for the expedition. Unqualified as a diplomat, he was unsuccessful in persuading Argentina and Chile to enter the war on the Allied side. Shackleton, also called “The Boss”, was among the greatest explorers to ever walk on this earth. [153] This team became the first to replicate the so-called "double crossing"; sailing from Elephant Island to South Georgia, and the crossing of the South Georgian mountains from King Haakon Bay (where Shackleton had landed nearly 100 years prior) to Stromness. An Interview with Alexandra Shackleton Sir Ernest could do far worse than have as his only granddaughter the Honorable Alexandra Shackleton. Kenneth Branagh portrayed Ernest Shackleton in this 2002 mini-series. [129][130] Macklin wrote in his diary: "I think this is as 'the Boss' would have had it himself, standing lonely in an island far from civilisation, surrounded by stormy tempestuous seas, & in the vicinity of one of his greatest exploits. While Shackleton led the expedition, Captain F. Worsley commanded the Endurance and Lieutenant J. Stenhouse the Aurora. [139], In 1959, Alfred Lansing's Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage was published. Who He Was. Ireland has always been known for having large families, and even today, they are the country with the third highest fertility rate in Europe. Mrs Chippy was shot when the Endurance sank, due to the belief that he would not have survived the ordeal that followed. [137] A statue of Shackleton designed by Charles Sargeant Jagger was unveiled at the Royal Geographical Society's Kensington headquarters in 1932,[138] but public memorials to Shackleton were relatively few. [25][26], The party set out on 2 November 1902. In the preface to his 1922 book The Worst Journey in the World, Apsley Cherry-Garrard, one of Scott's team on the Terra Nova Expedition, wrote: "For a joint scientific and geographical piece of organisation, give me Scott; for a Winter Journey, Wilson; for a dash to the Pole and nothing else, Amundsen: and if I am in the devil of a hole and want to get out of it, give me Shackleton every time". Alexander Macklin was one of two surgeons and also in charge of keeping the 70 dogs healthy. As you can see, he did not beat around the bush when describing the risk laden conditions these men would live in. Disaster struck this expedition when its ship, Endurance, became trapped in pack ice and was slowly crushed before the shore parties could be landed. [97], Elephant Island was an inhospitable place, far from any shipping routes; rescue by means of chance discovery was very unlikely. [9], Shackleton's restlessness at school was such that he was allowed to leave at 16 and go to sea. He was destined to become a doctor, according to his father, but Shackleton instead joined the merchant navy when he was 16 and qualified as a master mariner in 1898. [74], Shackleton used his considerable fund-raising skills, and the expedition was financed largely by private donations, although the British government gave £10,000 (about £900,000 in 2019 terms). It is clear to me where our first duty lies, and this morning I telegraphed the First Lord of the Admiralty and put our ship, and every one of us, at his disposal. The goal was ambitious - audacious even, considering that only 10 men had ever stood at the South Pole and 5 of those had died on the way back. [145] In Boston, a "Shackleton School" was set up on "Outward Bound" principles, with the motto "The Journey is Everything". He loved the idea of going on great adventures. He was built for adventure and had little use for civilized society -- so he set sail for the coldest place on Earth. Meanwhile, a second ship, the Aurora, would take a supporting party under Captain Aeneas Mackintosh to McMurdo Sound on the opposite side of the continent. [f][73] The transcontinental journey, in Shackleton's words, was the "one great object of Antarctic journeyings" remaining, now open to him. 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